S t Criq, made opaque porcelain and stoneware in the English style, and transferred prints on to the ware. With a yellow border and transfer-printed landscape. In , Messrs. This ware had a very extensive sale, and dealt a severe blow to the manufacture of French fayence. It soon spread over France, and was extensively made at Toulouse, Creil, Sarreguemines, and other places. A third fayence manufactory was founded in by J. Masquelier, and was continued in [Pg 83] the same family until A fourth was established in , by M. Chanou, who made a brown earthenware called terre du St.
Esprit , in the English fashion. There were also two other factories here in the 18th century. These epithets exactly describe the quality of the latter ware. It is very serviceable for domestic utensils, such as drinking bottles and vessels of everyday use, and is covered with a thin transparent glaze, effected by throwing common salt into the kiln when the ware is nearly baked—the salt vaporised by the heat surrounds the vessels, and acting upon the silica of their surfaces produces a thin gloss of silicate of soda over the ware, rendering it perfectly impervious.
The celebrated Veit Hirschvogel, of Schlettstadt, was born in , and died in ; he was a great potter, contemporary with Luca della Robbia, of Florence. The early pieces of pottery are somewhat like maiolica, but the colours are brighter, green predominating in many specimens; figures in relief in niches are frequently seen on vases.
Several chimney-pieces of this ware of the 15th century are still in existence, one is in the castle of Salzburg, and many [Pg 85] pieces treasured up in museums are supposed to have been made by Hirschvogel himself. The Nuremberg pottery of the 16th and 17th centuries is not uncommon. Hirschvogel was succeeded by his sons and a host of continuators. Jug, of enamelled earthenware, in [Pg 86] various colours, with figures in low relief; attributed to Veit Hirschvogel; height 13 in.
In the convent of St. Paul, which was built in , there was a frieze of bricks, covered with tin enamel glaze, representing in relief the heads of Saints and Apostles, 20 in. On the demolition of the convent a selection of these was deposited in the Dresden Museum; they are of Byzantine character, in green enamel [Pg 87] shaded with black; the hair, beard, and eyes of the figures are coloured. A manufactory for earthenware was in existence here for many centuries. A pulpit of enamelled earthenware still exists, supported by a life-size figure of Moses, ornamented with eight plaques of religious subjects and figures of the four Evangelists, bearing the name of the potter and the date Coffee-pot and cover, chocolate coloured ground, decorated with gilt scrolls; F, the cypher of Frederick the Great, under a crown in front; about the middle of the 18th century; height 9 in.
The stoneware made here in the 16th century is better known throughout Europe than any other description of pottery; its durability [Pg 89] for domestic uses and the elegant character of its ornamentation in relief, caused it to be sought for everywhere. The manufactory was not actually in Cologne, but in the vicinity, possibly at Frechen , and at Lauenstein , where a factory was established in the 18th century.
There were also factories at Siegburg and Limburg. All the ware was made in moulds, and it must be borne in mind that the vessels were not always made at the date indicated upon them, for the moulds were used successively through a series of years, and it is no uncommon occurrence to find two different dates upon the same piece. Grey and blue. Cream colour. The forms are usually plates, dishes, and jugs, in which the decoration consists of a fine blue enamel on grey ground, with incuse ornaments executed by hand.
Kreussen , a town of Bavaria, has long been noted for its pottery. Bunzlau , in Silesia. At the present time an extensive trade is still carried on in the manufacture of chocolate and coffee pots, usually covered with a brown glaze, and lined with white. There is preserved a monster coffee-pot, 15 feet high, made at this place in the 18th century. Harburg , on the Elbe, opposite Hamburg, is noted as the residence of Johann Schaper, who was born towards the end of the 16th century.
His exquisite paintings of landscapes and figures are usually in Indian ink or sepia en grisaille , the colours being fixed by heat. The Wintergursts, father and son, were celebrated potters here, and made fayence from the beginning of the 17th century; it is from their manufactory that the table services, of which each piece represents an animal or a vegetable, were made. Lauenstein , near Coblenz. Enamelled fayence was made here in the beginning of the 18th century, at a factory founded by Gelz of Frankfort. The manufactory ceased in , but a potter named Dahl established one in the vicinity.
He made statuettes and other ornaments. His first attempt produced a red ware, like jasper, which was cut and polished by the lapidary and gilt by the goldsmith. It was made from a kind of brown clay found at Meissen. Another kind of pottery was made at the beginning of the 18th century, in imitation of the Japanese; it was called the red pottery of Dresden.
A manufactory was carried on in this small town in the 18th century by a potter named Welby. It has an elegant border in grey, with richly gilt designs, resembling the gilding of Vienna. Date about Paul Hannong, driven from Strassburg in , in consequence of the Vincennes monopoly, founded a manufactory here in the following year for hard paste porcelain; he also made great quantities of fayence, usually decorated with flowers, as at Strassburg.
Arnstadt Gotha. A factory was established here about the middle of the 18th century. George [Pg 99] and the Dragon, coloured flowers on the sides, and a purple and green check border, is in the British Museum. Kiel was noted for its fayence about ; the factory was under the direction of J. Buchwald, who had been master potter at Marieberg, to ; a few years after, probably in or , he became director of the Kiel manufactory. The paintings of landscapes and flowers in colours are well finished.
Delft, a town between the Hague and Rotterdam, was celebrated for its earthenware at a very early period. The exact date of its commencement is not known, but there is a record of a certain Herman Pietersz, a fayence maker, being married in , consequently pottery was being made in the town towards the end of the 16th century. At this period the decorated Dutch pottery showed Italian influence in its design, and it is recorded that a painter on pottery named Vroom studied his art in Italy.
After the middle of the 17th century the industry increased rapidly, and reached its greatest prosperity about , when there were about thirty different factories, and the ware was decorated by highly skilled artists. No one was allowed to establish a factory unless he had obtained a licence from the Guild of S t. To this period belong famous potters, such as P. Other potters of note at this time were the Eenhorns, father and two sons, the Kleftyns, and the five Kams.
In the factories were reduced to one half their former number, and by only seven existed. The forms of the Delft ware are very varied; among other curious efforts the potters produced musical instruments. It has the mark of Louwys Fictoor. Late 17th or early 18th century. The mark of Ghisbrecht Lambrechtse Kruyk. Later half of 17th century. A manufactory of fine fayence was established in , in the parish of Amstelveen, near Amsterdam; it lasted ten years. An important fabrique was established at Luxemburg by the brothers Boch, in , who had removed from Audun le Riche in France.
About the year , Peter the Great, during his stay at Saardam, induced some potters of Delft to emigrate to St. Petersburg, where he established a manufactory. Petersburg a fabrique of fayence, on the other side of the Neva, where they make every description of vessels of correct design and in good taste. A private gentleman of Revel has also established at his own cost, near this city, a fabrique of fayence, and has obtained painters and potters from Germany.
The works were at first under the direction of Jean Wolf. He was succeeded by C. In they were managed by Nordenstople, and later by Geyer. Marieberg , near Stockholm.
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Ehrenreich, under the patronage of Count Scheffer, Councillor of State. The fayence was something like Delft ware, and it was also ornamented with transfer printing. Porcelain has this distinguishing characteristic, that when held up to a strong light it appears translucent, unlike fayence, which is perfectly opaque. Its fracture is hard and white internally, like a broken piece of alabaster. Porcelain of soft paste has the appearance of an unctuous white enamel like cream; it is also to the touch of a soft, warm, and soapy nature, something like the surface of fine fayence.
The soft paste may, therefore, be easily cut or scratched with a steel point or a file, which would have no effect upon the hard paste; it is consequently liable to become much scratched by frequent use. The hard paste or true porcelain is of the whiteness of milk; it feels to the touch of a hard and cold nature, and is somewhat heavier than the soft; underneath the plates and other pieces the rim or edge is left unpolished, or without glaze.
The painting upon porcelain is executed after the ware has been baked. Whilst in a biscuit state, the piece to be painted is dipped into a diluted glaze; it readily absorbs the water, leaving on the surface a thin coating of components which quickly dries [Pg ] into a solid shell, uniformly thick over all its parts, and sufficiently firm to bear handling without being rubbed off during removal into the seggar or case which protects it in the kiln. The amateur must be upon his guard in collecting porcelain, and not place too much reliance on the marks which he may find upon the ware.
When the mark is not indented on the paste, or baked with the porcelain when at its greatest heat au grand feu , it gives no guarantee of its genuineness. The mark was nearly always affixed before glazing. The first successful attempt in Europe to imitate porcelain was made at Florence as early as , under the auspices of Francesco I. For some reason, the manufacture of this porcelain was abandoned after the death of the inventor. About it rose to great importance, and large groups were executed from the models of the most celebrated sculptors.
In the moulds of the Capo di Monte porcelain were transferred to Doccia. Naples—Capo di Monte. This manufactory was founded by Charles III. It is considered of native origin, as the art, which was kept so profound a secret in Dresden, could, at that early period, have scarcely had time to be introduced here, and the char [Pg ] acter of its productions are also essentially different. The king himself took great interest in it, and is said to have worked occasionally in the manufactory.
The beautiful Capo di Monte services and groups in coloured relief are of the second period, circa There was a manufactory of soft porcelain probably established towards the end of the 18th century, carried on by the brothers Giuseppe and Andrea Fontebasso. Vittorio Amedeo Gioanetti established a manufactory of porcelain at Vinovo or Vineuf in Attempts in this direction had been previously made, but they were unsuccessful, and it was not until Gioanetti applied himself to the manufacture that it succeeded.
The ware was noted for its fine grain and the whiteness of its glaze, as well as for the colours employed in its decoration. He invested the sum of 30, ducats in a porcelain company, amongst whose shareholders were Luca Mantovani and others. The site of the Vezzi manufactory of porcelain was at S. Nicolo in Venice. Another striking peculiarity in the decoration of porcelain of this period is a border of black or coloured diaper work formed by crossed lines, having in the interstices small gilt points or crosses bordered by scrolls.
Cozzi period. Height 17 in. A beautiful example of this porcelain is represented in Fig. On the 18th of March , a decree granted to the Hewelckes the privileges they had requested. It seems that the undertaking proved eventually to be unfortunate, and at the termination of that war, which had brought them to Venice, they returned to their native country. In , the Senate granted to Giminiano Cozzi, in the Contrada di San Giobbe, Venice, protection and pecuniary assistance in carrying out a manufacture of porcelain.
The manufacture of porcelain at Nove may be traced back as far as the 12th January , when Pasqual Antonibon brought from Dresden a certain Sigismund Fischer to construct a furnace for making porcelain in the Saxon style. From this time forward he continued his experiments, and must have made great progress in the art, for in February he had three furnaces, of which one was for Saxon ad uso di Sassonia , [Pg ] the other two for French porcelain ad uso di Francia.
In , Antonibon submitted specimens of his porcelain to the Board of Trade, and petitioned that the patent rights which had been conceded to Hewelcke should be extended to him. At that time, the report states, Antonibon had at Nove a manufactory, rich in buildings, machinery, and tools. The capital embarked in it was estimated at 80, ducats, and so great was the sale of his products that he gave employment to men and their families, in addition to people employed in his retail business, carried on at his three shops in Venice.
This extensive manufactory was, however, principally for maiolica. By Antonibon. On the 7th April , a decree was made in his favour; and he appears to have set earnestly to work in his manufacture of porcelain. Pasqual Antonibon and his son Giovanni Battista [Pg ] continued the fabrication of porcelain until the 6th February , when they entered into partnership with Signor Parolini. An example of the Baroni fabrique , in porcelain, with female figure handles, and painted with classical subjects, is given.
Antonibon and his son Francesco; they continued the manufacture of [Pg ] porcelain until , but all their efforts to sustain it were ineffectual; they could not compete with the porcelain manufactories of France and Germany, so they were compelled to abandon the factory. Madrid — Buen Retiro. It was organised by workmen whom he brought with him from Naples. The early ware produced here consequently resembles that of Capo di Monte. It was subsequently blown up by Lord Hill when the misconduct or perfidy of Ballasteros compelled him to evacuate Madrid.
Ferdinand VII. The celebrated porcelain manufactory at Dresden, or rather at Meissen in its vicinity , was established by Augustus II. His first attempt was a red ware, like jasper, which was cut and polished by the lapidary, and ornamented by gilding; it was a fine stoneware, having the opacity, grain, and toughness of pottery. In consequence of this important discovery, Augustus II.
The first decorations upon this ware were very imperfect, consisting of a blue colour under the glaze, in imitation of Nankin blue porcelain. The best productions emanated from the Dresden manufactory from to Etched by Busch. Of the Marcolini period, with gros bleu ground. This vain man had a great desire that his likeness should be executed in porcelain at the royal manufactory, and his request was complied with, but probably not in such a way as to gratify [Pg ] his vanity, for not only the tailor but his wife were thus immortalised, aere perennius , in porcelain.
In Dietrich became Director, and he was succeeded in by Marcolini, whose beautiful productions are well known. Porcelain of his period is always distinguished by a star underneath crossed swords. Painted with views of public buildings in Dresden. The white Meissen porcelain was sometimes ornamented by private persons, especially by a Baron Busch, Canon of Hildesheim, who was the only person possessed of the secret of engraving with a diamond on china.
White porcelain. Pink ground, painted with landscapes and figures. It was carried on for about ten years, but it never remunerated the originator, and he abandoned it in , when Gottskowski, a celebrated banker, became the purchaser, and removed the works to Leipziger Strasse; assisted by his capital, they were brought to great perfection.
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In plain white. Wegeli period. Height 9 in. Johann Ernst Gottskowski obtained the secret of porcelain from Ernst Heinrich Richard, who had been employed by Wegeli. Gottskowski did not personally manage the manufactory, but placed it under the management of the Commissioner Grunenger, which led to his employment from the year to as the head of the royal porcelain manufactory at Berlin.
In , Gottskowski gave up to the king the whole of his factory of porcelain, receiving , [Pg ] dollars, and entering into a contract for the sale of his secrets. With a view to encouraging the manufacture in his kingdom, the king made presents of superb services of Berlin china to several German princes in the year The king also transported great quantities of the clay and a portion of the collection. Independently of this, and the better to insure employment for the five hundred persons engaged in the processes, he restricted the Jews resident in any part of his dominions from entering into the marriage state, until each man had obtained a certificate from himself, which was only granted on the production of a voucher from the Director of the manufactory that porcelain to a given amount had been purchased, and that there was reasonable cause for granting the indulgence.
Of course the Jews more readily disposed of their purchases than the general dealers, and the device was attended with favourable results. To insure the success of the establishment and extend its operations, Frederick embraced every opportunity that was presented; and it was so well supported that in seven hundred men were constantly employed, and it is said that three thousand pieces of porcelain were made daily. About , the Berlin Royal Porcelain Manufactory was working seven kilns, and employing three hundred workmen; the annual produce amounted on an average to half a million finished articles, value , Prussian dollars.
The superintendence was entrusted to Herr Kolbe who succeeded Herr Frick in the direction , under whom were Dr. Eisner as chemist, Herr Mantel as master modeller, and Herr Looschen as head painter. A manufactory was founded in by J. Clarus, two merchants of Frankfort, assisted by A. Christian [Pg ] Gottlieb Kuntze was another celebrated worker in this fabrique.
On the invasion of the French under General Custine in , all the materials were sold by auction. Frankenthal , in Bavaria. In the factory was purchased by the Elector Carl Theodore, and it [Pg ] attained great celebrity, which it maintained until he became Elector of Bavaria, in It then declined, and all the stock and utensils were sold in and removed to Greinstadt.
The following chronogram denotes the year —. It occurs on a porcelain plate, Fig. Neudeck , on the Au, and Nymphenburg. This factory was established in , by a potter named Niedermayer. Graf von Hainshausen became its patron in , and in he sent for Ringler, who organised the establishment, and it was then placed under the protection of the Elector Maximilian Joseph. On the death of his successor, Carl Theodore, in , the Frankenthal manufactory was abandoned, [Pg ] and transferred to Nymphenburg, which is still a royal establishment, and well supported. The pieces are manufactured in white at Nymphenburg, but chiefly decorated at Munich and elsewhere; that is the reason why on the same piece the Nymphenburg mark is frequently found impressed, with the mark of some other factory painted in colour.
Anspach , a town which belonged to the Margraves [Pg ] of Anspach and is now in Bavaria. There was a factory here about Bayreuth was under the same rulers as Anspach, and is now also in Bavaria. There was a manufactory here in the 18th century, but little appears to be known respecting it. Kelsterbach , in Hesse.
A manufactory for pottery was founded here about , where later [Pg ] porcelain was also made. The works only lasted about sixteen years. In the middle of the 18th century a number of small porcelain factories sprang up in this district. It is said that they owe their origin to a chemist named Macheleid, who discovered by accident a deposit of kaolin, and obtained permission from the Prince of Schwarzburg to establish a factory at [Pg ] Sitzenroda , which in was removed to Volkstedt. Closter , or Kloster , Veilsdorf , or Volkstedt. The porcelain manufactory of Sitzenroda was transferred to Volkstedt, in Thuringia, in , where it was farmed by a merchant named Nonne, of Erfurt, who greatly enlarged and improved the works.
About the year it was carried on by Greiner. In more than workmen were employed. The factory at Volkstedt was afterwards removed to Rudolstadt, near Jena. Gotthelf Greiner had the direction of several of the other Thuringian manufactories; he died in A factory was established here about by Arnandus, Prince-Bishop of Fulda, for the manufacture of porcelain.
The best artists were employed, and many grand vases, figures, and services of a fine white paste and handsomely decorated were produced. The manufactory was carried on by the Government up to the middle of last century. In white biscuit. Portraits of O. Beckmann and A.
Established by J. Ringler in , under the patronage of Carl Eugene, the reigning duke. It was celebrated for the excellence of its productions and the fine paintings on its vases and services, as well as for its excellent groups. This factory ceased in This factory was established about A factory was established here about by Greiner.
The demand for his porcelain was so great, that not being able to enlarge his works at Limbach, he started this as well as Veilsdorf and Volkstedt.
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This manufactory was also under the direction of Gotthelf Greiner. It was established about It ceased in Height 11 in. Founded in by Rothenberg, and afterwards conducted by Henneberg. Rauenstein , in Saxe-Meiningen. A factory for hard paste was established here in Wallendorf , in Saxe-Coburg. There was also a factory for hard paste established by Greiner and Haman here in This manufactory for hard paste was founded about With this object in view De Blaquier proceeded secretly to Meissen, where he contrived to scrape acquaintance with the arcanist in a coffee-house.
He engaged with Stenzel in a game of billiards, taking care to lose, and thus he secured his object. Stenzel after some slight hesitation, accepted an offer of a thousand dollars to be paid yearly. De Blaquier had to contend with many difficulties owing to his not being possessed of the secret, and at the end of the second year Stenzel not having been paid regularly according to his contract, returned to Meissen, after having maliciously destroyed many of [Pg ] the models.
The works had consequently to be suspended. But De Blaquier, being a man of energy and determination, endeavoured by numerous experiments to discover the porcelain mixture, and his efforts were finally crowned with success.
The young Empress Maria Theresa resolved to support the factory, which promised to give occupation and profit to her subjects, honour and gain to [Pg ] the State. She therefore commanded that it should be taken by State contract from its owner, and that De Blaquier should receive the direction with a salary of florins a year. From to was the best period for figures and groups, while from to painting on china became celebrated, the subjects being taken from paintings by Watteau, Lancret, Boucher, Angelica Kauffmann, and others.
After the death of the Baron in , Neidermayer became Director. The manufacture continued [Pg ] in its flourishing condition until about From the year to the date of its extinction, it was the custom to mark every piece with the number of the year, which circumstance may be of great service to the connoisseur who seeks early specimens of Vienna porcelain.
It is stamped without colour underneath the piece—or rather indented, the first numeral being omitted; thus the number stands for ; for ; and so on. From , under the direction of Scholtz, who followed Niedermayer, the manufactory began to decline, and what with economy, indifferent workmen, and bad artists copying from French models its doom was sealed.
It gradually dwindled down to a second-rate factory, and in consequence of the great annual expense it was discontinued in The books on art belonging to the factory, and all the drawings of its most successful period, together with many of the models, the library, and the keramic collection, were given to the Imperial Museum in Vienna, to be retained as a lasting memorial of its celebrity. This manufactory was established in the year George Lippert was the owner in , and much improved the industry.
Herend , in Hungary. There was a manufactory of porcelain here towards the end of the 18th century, but particulars concerning its origin are not known. Nyon , on the lake of Geneva. A manufactory was in full work here towards the end of the 18th century. Another German, Sonnenschein, a sculptor, was employed to model figures and groups. The factory was not a financial success. In the works were sold to a potter named Nehracher, and on his death in the works ceased. With mark, fish in blue. The first manufactory for porcelain in Holland was at Weesp, near Amsterdam.
It was established in by the Count Cronsfeldt-Diepenbroick, who had by some means obtained the secret of the composition of hard paste. After existing seven years, the factory was closed in Notwithstanding the unsuccessful result from a commercial point of view, it was reopened by a Protestant minister, the Rev.
De Moll, of Oude Loosdrecht, associated with some capitalists of Amsterdam, but the next year it was removed to Loosdrecht. The decorations are very much of the Saxon character. Mark, a cross and dots. It sprang from the ashes of Weesp, and in became a company, with the Rev. De Moll at its head; after his death, in , the concern passed into the hands of his partners, J. Rendorp, A.
Dedel, C. Van der Hoop, Gysbz, and J. Hope, and was by them removed, in , to Oude Amstel. The ware is of fine quality, decorated in the Saxon style; specimens are frequently met with, having gilt borders and a light blue flower between green leaves. On the death of the Rev. It flourished under his direction for a few years, and produced a fine description of porcelain, but it gradually declined, in consequence of the large importations from England which inundated the country.
In it came into the hands of J. Rendorp, C. About the year , a porcelain manufactory for both hard and soft paste was opened at The Hague, under the direction of a German named Leichner or Lynker. The works ceased in or Established in by Peterinck. For some time previous to the works were carried on by M. Maximilien de Bettignies, who, in consequence of the annexation of Tournai to Belgium, ceded it in that year to his brother Henri, and established another factory at St. With the early mark in gold. There was a manufactory of hard paste porcelain here towards the end of the 18th century.
Signed L. A factory for hard paste porcelain was established at Sept Fontaines about , by the brothers Boch. At St. Petersburg, an Imperial china manufactory was established in , by the Empress Elizabeth Petrowna, with workmen from Meissen. Catherine II. Olsoufieff, since which this fabrique has held a distinguished place among European manufactories. The paste is hard and of a blueish cast, finely glazed, and it betrays its Dresden origin. With the mark of the Emperor Paul. Mark, G in blue. Height 8 in. With view of Moscow.
Mark, A. A porcelain manufactory was established at Twer , by an Englishman named Gardner, in , and another by A. Painted with a portrait of a lady , en grisaille, with gilt borders. Mark, Eye within a triangle. Baranowka , in Volhynia. A small factory existed [Pg ] here at which the porcelain clay found in the neighbourhood was used. Mark, the name of the town. This manufactory produced porcelain soft paste , as well as fayence. In quality as well as in decoration the porcelain is like that of Mennecy-Villeroy in France.
The industry was established by Ehrenreich, under the patronage of Count Scheffer, Councillor of State, in , and altogether ceased about Mark, M. The capital was raised in shares, but the factory not being successful, the Government interfered, and it became a royal establishment in , and has remained so ever since. With portraits of Raphael, and other celebrated painters. A factory was established here about for the production of porcelain, at which time M.
Morin was proprietor, and M. Chicanneau director of the works. His children, to whom he imparted the secret, successfully continued the fabrication, and were permitted to manufacture porcelain at St. Cloud, or in any other part or parts of the kingdom, except Rouen and its faubourgs. In a renewal of the patent took place for ten years, and in the meantime the widow Barbe Courdray married a M. Astronomy seated, holding the sun. About this time serious disagreements occurred between the two families, and they separated, Gabriel and Henri Trou remaining at St.
The manufactory at St. Cloud was destroyed by fire the act of an incendiary in , and the manufacture ceased, the proprietors not being able to raise sufficient funds to rebuild it. The porcelain was highly esteemed, and there was hardly any object which they did not produce, from the lofty vase to the simplest knife handle. Mark, hunting horn and P, in gold. Diameter 12 in. Louis Poterat, Sieur de St. Sever, at Rouen, obtained letters patent in , [Pg ] stating that he had discovered processes for fabricating porcelain similar to that of China, and wares resembling those of Delft; but the former was of a very rude character and never arrived at any perfection.
After the establishment at St. Cloud had commenced selling porcelain, the proprietors of the Rouen manufactory appear to have revived their porcelain in the hopes of competing with them, but with no good result. The early specimens are similar to the porcelaine tendre of St. Cloud, of a milky translucent appearance.
Barbin was succeeded about by Messieurs [Pg ] Jacques and Jullien, and the manufactory continued in a flourishing state until , when on the expiration of the lease it was removed to Bourg-la-Reine. It was carried on by Glot in Established in by the Demoiselles Deleneur, under the patronage of M. Established by M. Haffringue, in the 19th century, with the kaolin of Limoges. Established in , by Monnier, for soft paste porcelain. The works lasted only a short time.
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Koop and Hogitaro Inada The pioneering work of Koop and Inada remains an important and fundamental reference for those wishing to master the pronunciation of Japanese names. Oriental Ceramics Discovered in the Philippines. Macintosh, Duncan. Chinese Blue and White Porcelain. Mudge, Jean McClure. Chinese Export Porcelain for the American Trade, Chinese Export Porcelain in North America. New York: C. Potter: Distributed by Crown Publishers, Newark Museum Association. Palmer, Arlene.
New York: Crown Publications, Inc. Peabody Museum of Salem. Pearce, Nick. Rudolph, Wolfgang. Leipzig: Edition Leipzig, Sargent, William R. Scheurleer, D. New York: Pitman Publishing Co. Schiffer, Herbert F. Fragile Cargo: Porcelain from China. Sharpe, Elisabeth K. Stitt, Irene. Japanese Ceramics of the Last Years. New York: Crown Publishers, Tudor-Craig, Sir Algernon. Armorial Porcelain of the Eighteenth Century. London: Century House, Volker, T. Porcelain and the Dutch East India Company. Leiden, Netherlands: E.
Brill, Williamson, G. The Book of Famille Rose. Reprint of ed. Smithsonian Information